Perinatal Hepatitis B is defined as HBsAg positivity in any infant aged >1-24 months who was born in the United States or in U.S. territories to an HBsAg-positive mother.  Infants infected perinatally have a 90% chance of developing chronic hepatitis B infection compared to adults who only have a 5% change of developing chronic infection if exposed.  In order to prevent perinatal infections, the Department of Public Health has a program in which staff work with chronic hepatitis B pregnant women, obstetricians, hospitals, and pediatricians to ensure infants are fully vaccinated against hepatitis B and post vaccine tested.
Infants born to HBsAg-positive women should receive hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG 0.5 mL, IM) as soon as possible after birth and hepatitis B vaccine within 12 hours of birth.  Post exposure prophylaxis with hepatitis B vaccine and HBIG administered 12 to 24 hours after birth, followed by completion of hepatitis B vaccine series, has been demonstrated to be 85%-95% effective in preventing acute and chronic HBV infection in infants born to chronic carriers.
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